Azure WebJobs In .NET Core – Part 4

This is part 4 of a series on getting up and running with Azure WebJobs in .NET Core. If you are just joining us, it’s highly recommended you start back on Part 1 as there’s probably some pretty important stuff you’ve missed on the way.


Azure WebJobs In .NET Core

Part 1 – Initial Setup/Zip Deploy
Part 2 – App Configuration and Dependency Injection
Part 3 – Deploying Within A Web Project and Publish Profiles
Part 4 – Scheduled WebJobs


WebJob Scheduling For .NET Core?

So in this part of our tutorial on Web Jobs, we are going to be looking at how we can set WebJobs on schedules for .NET Core. Now I just want to emphasize that this part really isn’t really too .NET Core specific, infact you can use these exact steps to run any executable as a Web Job on a schedule. I just felt like when I was getting up and running, that it was sort of helpful to understand how I could get small little “batch” jobs to run on a schedule in the simplest way possible.

If you feel like you already know all there is about scheduling jobs, then you can skip this part altogether!

Setting WebJob Schedule via Azure Portal

So even though in our last post, we were deploying our WebJob as part of our Web Application, let’s take a step back and pretend that we are still uploading a nice little raw executable via the Azure Portal (For steps on how to make that happen, refer back to Part 1 of this series).

When we go to upload our zip file, we are actually presented with the option to make things scheduled right from the get go.

All we need to do is make our “Type” of WebJob be triggered. As a side note, many people confuse this with “triggering” a WebJob through something like a queue message. It’s not quite the same. We’ll see this in a later post, but for now think of a “triggered” WebJob referring to either a “Manual” trigger, e.g. You click run inside the portal. Or “Scheduled” which is run every X minutes/hours/days etc.

Now our “CRON Expression” is like any other time you’ve used CRONs. Never used them before? Well think of it like a string of numbers that tells a computer how often something should run. You’ll typically see this in Linux systems (Windows Task Scheduler for example is more GUI based to set schedules). Here’s a great guide to understanding CRON expressions : https://www.baeldung.com/cron-expressions.

A big big word of warning. While many systems only allow CRON expressions down to the minute, Azure allows CRON syntax down to the second. So there will be 6 parts to the CRON instead of 5 just incase you can’t work out why it’s not accepting your expression. This is also pretty important so you don’t overwhelm your site thinking that your batch job is going to run once a minute when really it goes crazy at once a second.

Once created, our application will run on our schedule like clockwork!

Editing An Existing WebJob Schedule via Azure Portal

So about editing the schedule of a WebJob in the portal… Well.. You can’t. Annoyingly there is no way via the portal GUI to actually edit the schedule of an existing WebJob. Probably even more frustratingly there is not even a way to stop a scheduled WebJob from executing. So if you imagine that you accidentally set something to run once a second and not once a minute, or maybe your WebJob is going off the rails and you want to stop it immediately to investigate, you can’t without deleting the entire WebJob.

Or so Azure wants you to think!

Luckily we have Kudu to the rescue!

You should be able to navigate to  D:\home\site\wwwroot\App_Data\jobs\triggered\{YourWebJobName}\publish  via Kudu and edit a couple of files. Note that this is *not* the same as  D:\home\data\jobs\triggered . The data folder is instead for logs and other junk.

Anyway, once inside the publish folder of your WebJob, we are looking for a file called “settings.job”. The contents of which will look a bit like this :

This should obviously look familiar, it’s our CRON syntax from before! This is actually how Azure stores our CRON setting when we initially upload our zip. And what do you know, editing this file will update our job to run on the updated schedule! Perfect.

But what about our run away WebJob that we actually wanted to stop? Well unfortunately it’s a bit of a hack but it works. We need to set the contents of our settings.job file to look like :

What is this doing? It’s saying please only run our job at 5AM on the 31st of February. The top of the class will note there is no such thing as the 31st of the February, so the WebJob will actually never run. As dirty as it feels, it’s the only way I’ve found to stop a scheduled WebJob from running (except of course to just delete the entire WebJob itself).

Uploading A WebJob With A Schedule As Part Of A Website Deploy

Sorry for the butchering of the title on this one, but you get the gist. If we are uploading our WebJob as part of our Website deploy, how do we upload it with our schedule already defined? We obviously don’t want to have to go through the portal or Kudu to edit the schedule every time.

A quick note first. You should already have done Part 3 of this series on WebJobs in .NET Core that explains how we can upload a WebJob as part of an Azure Website deploy. If you haven’t already, please read that post!

Back to deploying our scheduled job. All we do is add a settings.job file to the root of our WebJob project. Remember to set the file to “Copy If Newer” to ensure the file is copied when we publish.

The contents of this file will follow the same format as before. e.x. If we want to run our job once a minute :

Now importantly, remember from Part 3 when we wrote a PostPublish script to publish our WebJob to the App_Data folder of our Website? We had to edit the csproj of our Website. It looked a bit like this :

Now we actually need to change the folder for our scheduled WebJob to instead be pushed into our “triggered” folder. So the PostPublish script would look like :

Again I want to note that “triggered” in this context is only referring to jobs that are triggered via a schedule. Jobs that are triggered by queue messages, blob creation etc, are still continuous jobs. The job itself runs continuously, it’s just that a particular “method” in the program will trigger if a queue message comes in etc.

If you publish your website now, you’ll also deploy your WebJob along with it. Easy!

What’s Next?

So far, all our WebJobs have been simple .NET Core console applications that are being run within the WebJob system. The code itself actually doesn’t know that it’s a WebJob at all! But if you’ve ever created WebJobs using FullFramework, you know there are libraries for WebJobs that allow you to trigger WebJobs based on Queue messages, blobs, timers etc all from within code. Up until recently, these libraries weren’t ported to .NET Core, until now! We’ll jump right into this in our next post!

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